The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

Shari'a, errancies, miracles and science
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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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The Himyarite religion was either a hybrid of syncretic form of Abrahamic religion or represents a tradition that has not been described or recognized as such.
The missing tradition is those of "s'b Ysr'l" or the 'People of Israel'. Modern archaeology has determined the historicity of the religious narrative is impossible with many scholars viewing the stories as inspiring national myth narratives with little historical value. Unfortunately for those scholars the epigraphical record indicate that the 'Israelites' established many communicates in the Near East and do not refer to a specific group of people but to groups that share religious traditions.

The new hypothesis is that the "People who see God" - ʾyš (man) rʾh (to see/meet) ʾil (God) - are a subset of the ancient Amorites* and ancestral to Judaism, Christianity and Islam making all Abrahamic religions Israelite religions. Other Israelite religions include for instance Mandaeanism.

Image
*Ancient Semitic tribal culture with a nameless god (dd) - the story of god starts with god.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Inscription from Himyar, July 523, associating either Muhammad or the Praised One with the Lord of the Jews

This massive description, is carved on a rock at the wells of Bir Hima, 90 km to the north-north-west of the Najran oasis. It's author is Sharah'Il Yaqbul dhu-Yaz'an, the scion of a powerful princely family of Hadramawt which converted to Judaism or a form of Israelitism. This prince was in charge of retaking control of the oasis for Himyarite King Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar and during this campaign he had three inscriptions carved, one at Kawbab, dated June 523 and to at Bir Hima, dated to July of the same year.

The following text contains a vague allusion to his religious beliefs but appointed to crush a Christian uprising prince Sharah'Il Yaqbul dhu-Yaz'an avoids taking an overtly religious stance. The only explicit indication of Judaism is the name 'Lord of the Jews' given by the general to God.

Image
Pre-Islamic rock art of Arabia at Bir Hima, carved into the eastern foothills of the Asir Mountains of Saudi Arabia.
May God, to whom belong Heaven and Earth, bless King Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar, king of all the communes, and may He bless the princes [ ......]
They joined their lord king Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar when he burnt the church and massacred the Abyssinians at Zafar, attacked Asháran, Rakban, Fara'san and Mahkawan, set upon himself to fight and blockade Nagran, and fortify the Maddaban chain, when he gathered (?) near him - after having sent them with an army - and when what the king succeeded.

In seizing as booty during this campaign to 12,500 slain, 11,000 prisoners, 290,000 camels, cows and sheep; wrote this inscription Prince Sharah'Il Yaqbul dhu-Yaz'an, when he positioned himself against Nagran with the commune of dhu-Hamdan - village dwellers and nomads - a detachment of Az'unan and the Arabs of Kiddat, Murad and Madhhig, while the princes, his brothers placed themselves with the king along the sea {fearing} Abyssinia and were fortyfing the Maddaban chain, as for all that he mentioned in this inscription in terms of massacre, booty and encirclement, it was in a single campaign, such that he was far from his homes for thirteen months.

May Raḥmānan bless their sons [....], in the month of dhu-madhra'an {July} six hundred and thirty three. May, with the protection of Heaven and Earth and the capacities of men, this inscription {be protected} against any author of degradation ... Was composed, written and carried out in the name of Raḥmānan {The Most Merciful} - the narration of Tamim dhu-Hadyat - Lord of the Jews with MHMD*
* Transliterates either to Muhammad or the Praised One

The context of the inscriptions and religious developments in Himyar may be much bigger then expected as some sources identify the 'Israelite' Himyarites as Palymarene refugees- the Palymarene empire was destroyed by destroyed by the Romans in 275 AD which provides a link between Zenobia and the Israelite kingdom of Himyar founded in the 4th century AD - an event known in North Arabian scripts as the "the year of the great migration" which would explain why the Safaitic and Hismaic scripts suddenly disappear at the end of the third century - they went for an extended holiday to Yemen.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Bronze inscription from Yemen, 600BC, mentioning towns of Judah and Dedan
Evidence for ancient (trade) relations between Yemen and Israel & Judah

A fragmented and broken but well-preserved 25-line South Arabian inscription mentions, among other things, a trading expedition of the kingdom of Sabaea - Biblical Sheba - to ’HGR YHD, the “towns of Judah”. Believed to date to around 600 B.C.E., the inscription confirms Judah’s role in a lucrative Arabian trade that is alluded to several times in the Bible.

This new bronze inscription has been documented at about the end of the seventh century BCE (1) and is apparently a memorial inscription displayed on the wall of a temple. It is broken, and only three large pieces from the top of the inscription have been preserved. Although the lower part is missing, parts of at least 25 lines of the inscription are extant written in Sabaean, the language of the South Arabian kingdom of Sabaea (Sheba) and adjacent areas and the South Arabian alphabet.

The author is a man named Sabahhumu from the ancient South Arabian city of Nashq , now called Al-Bayda. Sabahhumu is a messenger of the king of Sheba, “Yada’il Bayin, son of Yitha’amar” and thanks the main Sabaean god Almaqah for having saved him from many dangers, especially in wars, and he dedicates all his family and properties to the god. The text also describes an important trade expedition to “Dedan, [Gaz]a and the towns of Judah” (’HGR YHD). (2) This is the first time “the towns of Judah” are mentioned in a South Arabian inscription and the first mention of Judah in a South Arabian inscription from the first millennium BC.

The phrase “towns of Judah” is used frequently in the old testament - for instance, at the end of the 8th century BCE., Sennacherib, ruler of Assyria, sent his troops against the fortified “towns of Judah” (2 Kings 18:13; Isaiah 36:1). Three centuries later, Nehemiah (11:3) refers to the “towns of Judah” that seem then to constitute a Persian province. The same can be seen in the numerous references to the “towns of Judah” in the book of the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:15, 4:16, etc.) from the end of the First Temple period.

Dating this inscription is complicated, but set by its discoverer Lemaire, based on the text’s mention of a contemporary “war of Chaldea and Iawan” to about 600 BC (3) In this inscription “Dedan” is identified as a destination in this international trade as this oasis was on the caravan route from South Arabia to Gaza and Judah, as explicitly mentioned in this inscription. Biblical book Ezekiel also mentions merchants of Sheba (Ezekiel 27:22)

Other evidence for ancient trade relations between Yemen and the Near East

Archaeological excavations at Beersheba reveal traces of the South Arabian trade from at least as early as the eighth century BC (4) especially as evidenced by a probable South Arabian graffito.(5)

A chiseled Sabaean letter has also been discovered in Aroer, a site located at a major crossroads in the Negev.

Excavations in Jerusalem uncovered at least one clear fragmentary South Arabian inscription and two probable ones dating to the city’s 587/6 B.C.E. Destruction. (6)

Ezekiel describes this international trade at some length (Ezekiel 27). In a prophecy against the Phoenician city of Tyre, he refers to merchants of “Judah and the land of Israel” (Ezekiel 27:17).

Conclusion
Relations between Himyar/Yemen and the Near East, especially modern Israel, are over 3000 years old and along with the trade came religious concepts and ideas.

Notes
  • (1) This Inscription was dated by historian André Lemaire, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris and epigraphists François Bron and Christian Robin and cited in publications of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris.
  • (2) Gaza is also mentioned later in Minaean inscriptions, in similar contexts, thereby making the reconstruction here quite certain.
  • (3) New Perspectives on the Trade between Judah and South Arabia,” in Meir Lubetski ed., New Inscriptions and Seals Relating to the Biblical World
  • (4) A Gateway Community in Southern Arabian Long-Distance Trade in the Eighth Century B.C.E.,” Tel Aviv 26 (1999), pp. 3–74, esp. 40–61.
  • (5)Bron, ibidem, p. 51
  • (6)Maria Höfner, “Remarks on Potsherds with Incised South Arabian Letters,” in Donald T. Ariel ed., Excavations at the City of David 1978–1985 Directed by Yigal Shiloh. Vol. 6, Qedem 41 (Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew Univ., 2000), pp. 26–28
Link to pdf with image of inscription
https://www.ybz.org.il/_Uploads/dbsAtta ... tracts.pdf, page 4
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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manfred
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Not everyone may be aware of the the fact that "Judah" and "Israel" are two distinct kingdoms. After Solomon, "Judah" was the southern part and "Israel" was the northern half of the region that once as a whole was called Israel. The Northern part retained the name and the southern one was called "Judah".
Jesus: "Ask and you will receive." Mohammed: "Take and give me 20%"

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Not everyone may be aware of the the fact that "Judah" and "Israel" are two distinct kingdoms.
After Solomon, "Judah" was the southern part and "Israel" was the northern half of the region that once as a whole was called Israel. The Northern part retained the name and the southern one was called "Judah"
I left it out on purpose. Ezekiel's 'Land of Israel' may refer to different locations and archeology
mentions primarily the kingdom of Samaria situated north of Yudah. Why different locations? The epigraphical record has names like Amos (ms'), lw (levites) or even Israel attested at Dedan long before the start of the Hamonean Period at Jerusalem.

'Minor' prophet Amos preaches north of 'Yudah' but his name is never attested. So where does Amos, contemporary of Isaiah who tells the people of Tema (Tayma) to "bring water for the thirsty" refugees coming from Dedan, preach? Possibly among the Israelite sites in Judah like Bethel or in Judah itself - this all depends on how you define 'Israelites'. Whatever definition you use, it is certain that there are multiple Lands of Israe'. The search starts (I think) in Genesis 25:11-18 - work in progress.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Himyarite Religious Texts

Inscription Bayt al-Ashwal 1
Image
Yahuda Yakkuf laid the foundations of, and finished his palace Yakrub,from the base to the summit, with the assistance of his Lord and the grace of his Lord, who created him, the Lord of life and, the lord of the Sky and of the Earth, who created everything, thanks to the prayer of his people Israel, with the support of his lord Dhara amar Ayman, king of Saba, of dhu-Raydan, of Hadramawt, and of Yannat, and with the support of his kin; ...
This Hebrew text is carved on a large block from Zafar, Himyar's capital and was reused in the nearby village of Bayt al-Ashwal. The invocation to the king Dhara amar Ayman enables the text to be dated between 380 and 420 AD. Note that the 'Lord of the Sky (heavens) and Earth' governs the people of Israel.

Inscription Bayt al-Ashwal 2
Malkīkarib Yuhaʾmin and his sons Abīkarib Asʿad and Dhara amar Ayman, king of Saba, of f dhu-Raydan, of Hadramawt, and of Yannat, have built, laid the foundations of, and completed the palace Kln, from its base ti its summit, with the support of their lord, the Lord of Heavens in the month of dhu-di awan {January}of the year four hundred and ninety-three.
This text originates from Zafar, dated to January 384, and was also reused in Bayt al-Ashwal. King Malkīkarib Yuhaʾmin commemorates the construction of a new palace and for the first time expresses his rejection of polytheism amd the establishment of a new religion, without giving the slightest indication about the exact nature of his monotheism.(1) Of special interest is the mentioning of (monotheist) Himyarite year 493 which implies that its calendar started in 109 BC.

Inscription Hasī 1
.. has granted to the Lord of the Sky four plits, next to this rock descending until the fence of the cultivated area, to bury the Jews there, with the guarantee that the burial of a Gentile next to them will be avoided, so that they may fullfil their obligations towards the Jews....

...With the guarantee, the prohibition and the threat of the Lord of the Sky and of the Earth, one shall avoid burying a Gentile on these plots.....
This long text carved on granite was found at the edge of a valley a few hundred meters from the ancient city of Hasī (210 km to the southeast of Sana) and describes the creation of a cemetery only for Jews only and is dared towards the end of the fourth century. The prince who decrees the creation shares with the Jews the faith in the same god, is apparently favorable to them but whether he is a Jew himself is uncertain.

Inscription Ry 534 + Rayda 1
Marthad īlān Yarīm ibn Hamdān, Suʾrān, Aśwaf and Agra have built and completed this synagogue Barīk for Īl, lord of the Sky and the Earth, for the salvation of their lords Abīkarib Asʿad, Haśśān Yuha min, Madīkarib Yuhanʿim, Marthad īlān Yazʾan, and Shuri h˙biʾīl Ya fur, kings of Saba, of dhu-Raydān, of Hadramawt, and [of Yamn]at, and so that God, Lord of the Sky and the Earth, may grant them
fear of his name and the salvation of their selves, of their companions and of their subjects,
in times of war and peace. In the month 5 of dhu-khir āf ān {August}, of {the year} five hundred and forty-three. Shālôm, shālôm, mikrāb Barīk
This inscription was dated to August 433 and commemorates the construction of a mikrāb (synagogue or place of worship) and was found 55 km north of San'a. Note that the god of the Jews is once again depicted as the Lord of the Sky and Earth.

Inscription Ja 856 = Fa 60
Malkīkarib Yuhaʾ min and his son [Abīkarib Asʿad, kings of] Saba, of dhu-Raydān, of Hadramawt
and [of Yamnat have built from the foundations to] the summit their mikrāb Barīk for their salvation and . . . . . .
This inscription dates from circa 373 AD and was found in Marib, the old capital of Saba and is the oldest inscription commemorating the construction of a mikrāb (synagogue or place of worship) with its name – bryk – borrowed from Aramaic.

Inscription ZM 2000
[Binyā]mîn Abīshammar, his wife Abīʿalī, and their children Ya[hû][dâ] Marthad ʾīlān, banū Hry ,
Dhārih˙, Kahnal, Bʾl, Nh˙s¹, and Haywat, have built, laid the foundations, and completed their home
Yaruśś for their own life and salvation as well as that of their children, of their kin and of their servants.

With the assistance and the power of their lord Īlān, master of the Sky and of the Earth, with the assistance of their people Israël and with the assistance of their lord Shurih˙bi ʾīl king of Saba, of dhu-Raydān, and of Hadramawt. May Rah˙mānān give them there <in this house > an exemplary life. In the month of dhu-thābatān {April} Five hundred and eighty. Āmēn.
The date of the document, April 470, is some 90 years after the ofcial adoption of (Judeo-)Monotheism
The way that the terms such as Yahūd and Iśrāʾīl are used in the Himyarite inscriptions suggests that
Iśrāʾīl is a political community replacing the ancient communes. Rah˙mānān is equated with Īlān or ilāh-ān (2), the god of the Sky and Earth in the context of Israel.

Conclusion
New questions: Why is the monotheist god of Himyar described as the Lord of the Sky or Heaven and Earth? Why is Iśrāʾīl used as a political community and why does the monotheist calendar of Himyar start in 109 BC?

Notes
(1) Garbini 1970: 160–3 Müller 2010: 59
(2) The final ān is the definite article, so it is the equivalent of Arabic al-ʾilāh.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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THE DEDANITIC RELIGION

Image

Location: Dedan, oasis of Ula, (Midian)
Era: 600 to 100 BC.
Deity: lh (god), pronounced as Allah.
Epithet: Dgbt - Official translation "He from the thickened bush", more likely Dhu-g-bt: "The One from the Congregational Tent/House".
Priest: s¹lḥ - literally 'he from God (Allah)' or 'him belonging to God (Allah)'

ZLL ceremony
This ceremony is mentioned numerous time as an event where God is honored and asked to bless the believer and his descendants - like in this inscription:
ḫlb
priest of Ḏġbt performed
for Ḏġbt the ẓll-ceremony at {Khl}
and so favour him
and his descendants
{and} help him
The verb ʾẓllw means "they performed the ẓll-ceremony". Usually, but not always, this verb is followed by the noun h-ẓll meaning the ẓll-ceremony". Thus,ʾẓllw and ʾẓllw h-ẓll both mean "they performed the ẓll-ceremony". But what is the difference between ʾẓllw and h-ẓll?

The Semitic root 'zl means to remove and in a religious context 'entire removal of sin'. So h-ẓll must be regarded as a portmanteau word, a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phonemes (sounds) are combined into a new word, like smog from smoke and fog. Here ẓll is a blend of 'zl' and 'il' creating a new verb 'removing sin for god'.

Portmanteau verb ẓllw explains how this is done. To 'remove sin' one encircles, from Semitic root lw(y) meaning to twist round and round, to circle. In monumental (Siniatic) script the š- form of the root lw(y) in the meaning “to circle”, “to hover about", meaning 'which I circle' or whom I 'circle'.

Levites
Minean inscriptions from Dedan (trade settlement from Main) mention temple servants as lw' and lw't - priest and priestess, dating from the 5th or 4th century BC. Apparently the temple of Wadd borrowed from Dedanitic traditions as the servant class lw' is not known in the two South Arabian kingdoms, Maín in the north and Aswan in the south, were W'add was the state god.

Some scholars have proposed that words lw' and lw't denote an object given to god, a pledge. This is highly unlikely for several reasons:
(1) Inscription JaL 050b mentions "s¹ʿd bn bʿlʾlw" meaning 's¹ʿd, son of the Lord of the lw' - those who encircle -
(2) Among the Yoruba Levites - distinguishable by their clans and names - can be found as half-priestly officials of the Oduduwa/Wadd section of Society. As we know, Wadd was worshiped in a Minean trade colony at Dedan. (See Cf Lange, "Ursprung des Bösen,", 25-26)
(3) The epigraphical record of Dedan which contains Biblical names that are unknown in the Levant until the start of the Hasmonean period.

Conclusion
If borrowed from nearby Dedan lw' references ecircling or 'one that encircumbulates' rendering Levite - which would make sens if once takes the entire context inconsideration - the mentioning of MHMD, Rhmn, Y'srael, Aron, Amos, Ra-Moshe in the Dedanitic epigraphical record.

The ZLL ceremony means that the believer encircles to remove sin and receive a blessing from God. Probably 7 times, something we'll address in a later stage.

And isn't that preciously what the Mishnah mentions? The priests formed the inner circle around the ark and the Levites encircled the priests -Hebrew Lēwî is a professional title, like kōhēn “priest,” not a marker of tribal affiliation and derives from the Hebrew verb lawah “to accompany, encircle".

Now we have to determine which Levites encircled first. Probably this was already an ancient, shared Israelite tradition in the sixth century BC. More important is that we found a carrier that can help explain the development of Abrahamic religions.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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THE Dadanitic RELIGION PART II: The God of Dedan and Lihyan
The essence of deity Ḏġbt - Dhu-g-b

Location: Dedan, oasis of Ula, (Midian)
Era: 600 to 100 BC.
Deity: 'l, lh (god), pronounced as Allah.
Epithet: Ḏqbt – The One (He) from the Watchtower

Introduction
In the previous post we analyzed the ZLL ceremony, mentioned numerous time in Dadanitic inscriptions as an event where their god is honored and asked to bless the believer and his descendants. These inscriptions mention Ḏġbt, the supreme deity at Dedan, whose name is usually translated as Dhu-Ghabat meaning 'The One of the Forest (thicket)' and relates to Arabic gabah - forest, thicket. This issue with this translation is that it doesn't connect to its context – it doesn't seem logical to have a 'god of the forest' in the middle of the harsh Arabian desert where rituals where performed at the slope of a mountain and pilgrimage was centered on a 'red' mountain. So how reliable is this translation?

Image
Dedan, Temple, Relief of a serpent

Dadanitic script
The name Ḏġbt is written in Dadanitic, a North Arabian script which grammar is poorly understood. While it follows rules belonging to the Arabic language family Dadanitic script exhibits a few forms of old Semitic which seems to have been lost at the Proto-Arabic stage. This script is part of the West-Semitic family.

Dadanitic script is part of the Ancient North Arabian (ANA) alphabets, a label grouping a number of consonental alphabets belonging to the South Semitic script family. The ANA alphabets are attested in a wide area stretching from northern Yemen to southern Syria and are thought to have developed parallel to ancient South Arabian, perhaps sharing a common yet independent ancestor. According to the latest classification of these alphabets, they are divided into four established types, Dadanitic, Hismaic, Safaitic, and Taymanitic, and a pending category called Thamudic, which has several subtypes, B, C, D, and southern.

Transliteration of 'Ḏġbt'
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways. Linguistic scientists mapped most Dadanitic script symbols with their Arabic counterparts as these inscriptions were found in an Arabic speaking environment. So you may wonder how this relates to the transliteration of Ḏġbt: the second Dadanitic symbol was mapped to the Arabic g-stem /g/ (Dhu g-bt).

Issue
In West-Semitic, ancestral to Dadanitic script, the /q/ q-stem is interchangeable with the /g/ g-stem. This is related to phenomenon of the palatalization, which refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate. In most of the of the Arabian peninsula
the letter qāf /q/ is pronounced as /g/ gāf, except in western and southern Yemen and parts of Oman. As traditional Arabic grammar rules were only established in 8th century AD we should consider that the g-stem may actually refer to /q/ in Dadanitic script.

For instance the palatalization of Proto-Semitic gīm /g/ to Arabic /d͡ʒ/ jīm is connected to the pronunciation of qāf /q/ as a gāf /g/ where ج is jīm /d͡ʒ/ and ق is gāf /g/, except in parts of Yemen and Oman where ج is gīm /g/ and ق is qāf /q/.
Pronunciation of the letter ج in parts of southern Arabia: [g]
Pronunciation of the letter ق in parts of southern Arabia: [q]
A new transliteration
So when transliterating <Ḏġbt> we should consider a transformation of pronunciation of qāf /q/ into gāf /g/ which would make <ḎQbt> or Dhu q-bt. So now we have to found a meaning for root qbt in either West-Semitic or the South Semitic script family.

In West-Semitic, proto-Semitic the verb 'qb means to follow, protect, guard or to watch over. In South Arabic Hadramatic and Sabaic script qbt means 'watchtower', 'fortress' or 'fortification'. In Hadramatic qbt is used with definitive article -hn making qbt-hn or 'The fortification' or 'The Watchtower.' In Sabiac 'qbt' is mentioned in the context of the 'mcqbthm' or 'the watchtower' and 'their guards'.
And Old South Arabic inscription J649/31 mentions {b'l qbt} or 'Lord of the Watchtower'.

Conclusion
We choose to transliterate <Ḏġbt> as Dhu q-bt meaning 'He of the Watchtower' or 'The One of the Fortification '.

The strong relationships between Dedan as important trade center and the Levant and Yemen, the preservation of forms of old Semitic, Dadanitic script being part of the South Semitic script family and the transformation of pronunciation of qāf /q/ into gāf /g/ in the Arabian Peninsula makes it more than likely that we are dealing with a portmanteau word, a linguistic blend of words, of /qb/ and /bt/ (house) indicating a stronghold, fortification or watchtower.

This new transliteration of Ḏġbt* into DQTB connects better to its context – something we will address in upcoming posts.

* As no ANSI code for Dadanitic is yet available (how strange) we'll have to use something else.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Some criticism received: l to ll shift in pronouncing lh is not proven for Dadanitic script, only for Nabataean centuries later. So Dadanitic lh is probably pronounced as Alaha.

Location: Dedan, oasis of Ula, (Midian)
Era: 600 to 100 BC.
Deity: 'l, lh (god), pronounced as Alaha.
Epithet: Ḏqbt – The One (He) from the Watchtower
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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The Dadanitic RELIGION PART III : God's People at Dedan
Who venerated the 'One of the Watchtower' at Dedan?

Location: Dedan, oasis of Ula, (Midian)
Era: 600 to 100 BC.
Deity: 'l, lh, lhm (god), pronounced as Eloah, Alaha or Elohim(?)
Epithet: ḎQBT – The One (He) from the Watchtower

Introduction
In the previous post we concluded that the epithet of god at Dedan, Ḏġbt, should be transliterated as 'Dhu /q/-b-t' meaning 'He of the Watchtower' or 'The One of the Fortification'. Using the transformation of pronunciation of qāf /q/ into gāf /g/ in the Arabian Peninsula and West-Semitic roots /q/ (or /qt/) and /bt/ we can deduce portmanteau word /qbt/, attested in North and South Semitic languages – indicating a stronghold, fortification or watchtower.

The concept of God as a stronghold or fortress is a central theme in the Old Testament. A few examples: Psalm 18:2 - 'The Lord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, My God, my rock, in whom I take refuge...'; Psalm 91:2 - 'I will say to the Lord, “My refuge and my fortress, My God, in whom I trust'; Psalm 62:6 - 'He only is my rock and my salvation, My stronghold; I shall not be shaken'; Samuel 22 'The Lord is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer'; Nahum 1:7 'The Lord is good, a stronghold in the day of trouble'; Psalm 9.9 'The Lord is a stronghold for the oppressed, a stronghold in times of trouble'. Jeremiah 16:9 'O LORD, my strength, and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction'.

Now the god of the rock, fortress, stronghold or watchtower is the one of the Israelites. So if
'He of the Watchtower' or 'The One of the Fortification' is identical to the god of the Old Testament the word 'Israel'/ Yisrāʾīl , like in the Himyarite inscriptions, should be attested in Dadanitic script. Secondly, we should understand what it means.

Inscriptions with Yisrāʾīl at Dedan

AH 070 (Sima 1999: 39)
Fʾrh daughter of Yṣrʾl
performed the ẓll-ceremony
for that which {belongs} to her
in Bdr and so (the deity) favour {her} and reward her
https://krc.orient.ox.ac.uk/ociana/corp ... 37746.html

AH 103
Yṣrʾl
https://krc.orient.ox.ac.uk/ociana/corp ... 33160.html

AH 106
Yṣrʾl
http://krc.orient.ox.ac.uk/ociana/corpu ... 33162.html

Tdr 23 (JaL 173 + JaL 173bis)
Signature of Yṣrʾl
http://krc.orient.ox.ac.uk/ociana/corpu ... 37300.html

From two inscriptions it's obvious that Yṣrʾl is used as a personal name. In the biblical Book of Genesis patriarch Jacob was given the name Yisraʾel or Yiśrāʾēl. The given name Yisraʾel is attested in Paleo-Syrian or Eblaite, an extinct Semitic language spoken during the third millennium BCE, as išrail and in Uguritic as yšrʾil. Scholars differ on the original literal intepretation - Genesis etymologizes the name with the root śarah "to rule, contend, have power, prevail over but modern suggestions read the el as the subject, for a translation of "El/God rules/judges/struggles", "El fights/struggles". The daughter of Yṣrʾl, mentioned in inscription AH 070, may be linked to Samuel 1:24 - "Daughters of Israel, weep for Saul, who clothed you in scarlet and finery, who adorned your garments with ornaments of gold.

As Dadanitic script preserves forms of ancient Semitic it is essential to compare the name Yṣrʾl with proto-Semitic roots. In proto-Semitic the proto root *ys/šr is attested for verb yaš/sar-(v) meaning to be be straight, to be smooth.(1) In other languages such as Uguritic yšr means uprightness(2) and Akkadian. ešeru to be straight and mešeru justice.

If we look at Arabic derived words are ٠َكَؽَyasara (verb) means to be smooth, ٠َكْؽyasr means docile, manageable, easy, tractable, riches.أ٠َْكَؽَ‘ysara (verb) becomes riches.٠َكَّؽَyassara (v)ease, facilitate, conciliate, harmonize, to follow the straight way. (3) And in the dictionary of te Torah yāšar (verb) can mean to go straight, just, upright, pleasing, agreeable; fair-dealing; to be straight; to be righteous, honest; having integrity; to make manifest.

If we relate Yṣrʾl to words, either in Hebrew or Arabic, deriving from proto root *y(i)s/šr and, as modern suggestions claim that El is the subject, Yṣrʾl might translate to God is smooth, docile, harmonizes or 'has integrity'. This approach – in the context of DQTB, the god as a rock, fortress, stronghold or watchtower – is far from satisfactory so the option of El as subject in Yṣrʾl should be rejected.

Another approach using Semitic Philology
In Hismaic script srˆl (1) is a theophoric personal name which is composed of the initial element sr and the common deity il/el (5). It is probably also attested in Thamudic in a short form as srl. So how should sr'l be interpreted?

Verb masar, commonly used in Aramaic and frequently found in the Misnah and related literary monuments means 'to hand over' or 'to surrender'. Root msr may be a secondary root where initial radical m of the root represents an original nominal prefix (ma) which has been added to the Common-Semitic root 'sr meaning 'to bind' or 'to tie'. (6) This root 'sr still survives in historical Aramaic and Hebrew languages such as Syriac mesarta (shackle) or Ethiopian ma'sar (to shackle) where the original alif (glottal stop) of the root 'sr is still preserved (7) and Hebrew nouns with m-prefix which are based on the root 'sr. With this approach Hismaic sr'l would mean 'Tied to God' or 'Bounded by God'. This reflects in West-Semitic verbal root 'sr meaning to restrain, to bind or to keep under control. (8) Theophoric names with šr can also be attested in Nabataean script - srˆlhy meaning bounded or subjected to god (pronouced as allahi).

This leaves us with Y'. In (Biblical) Hebrew Yi means he like in yi-dr, 'he studies' or yi-kbad ‘he will be heavy.’ In Akkadian he is 'i' as attested in preterite i-prus ‘(he) divided’ and present tense i-parras ‘(he) is dividing’. Biblical Yi corresponds with Uguritic Ya but is Arabic it's Yi again.

Conclusion
Yṣrʾl or Yisrāʾīl is a compound word formed out of from ancient Semitic Yi (he) and verb 'sr (to restrain, tie, bind) where the original alif of root 'sr (verb) was dropped making Y-sr-'l meaning 'He bounded/ restrained/ subjected to God' or simply a man bounded or subjected to god.

This may refer to a spiritual relationship, a covenant as foundation for a 'bond between god and humanity'. So the next question is if this concept can be attested in Dadanitic inscriptions.

References
(1) Etymological Study of Semitic Languages (Arabic and Hebrew), page 125
(2) Klein, Ernest. A comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language,p.266
(3) Ibn Manẓur.“Lisan Al-ʕrab” ( The tongue of Arabs), (Arabic-Arabic Dictionary),p.4957
(4) A study of new discovered Thamudic Inscriptions, p 277
(5) Jamme 1967, p. 202.
(6) Studies in Semitic Philology - Page 513
(7) ibed, p.514
(8) See Appendix II, Semitic Roots, page 2073: verb 'sr of West-Semitic origin – to restrain
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Hombre wrote:In Judaism, in addition to YHWH (יהןה) which rarely pronounced, Elohim or Elokim as Orthodox Jews prefer to use. So it is conceivable that - much like other verses in Quran, the name Allah may have been derived from Elohim.
It seems that this deriviation is more than plausible. Arthur Jeffery was the first who suggested - in 1938 - that the origin of Allāh should be found in one of the older religions and through a connection with Hebrew Elohim as in Old North Arabian Scripts, from the eight century BC to third century AD, the form 'lhm occurs at the beginning of prayers.

His hypothesis was rejected as this seem to represent the same suffix as in Allāhumma (divine inspiration) - a very dubious and strange rejection as Allāhumma is only found once - attested in Hismaic inscription Jackobson D.3.A.7.b where the author invokes Allāh to curse the sons of ʿuray son of ʿaklam: hāllāhumma le-banī ʿoray ben ʿaklam boʾsa’ - where 'lmh' can be found many times before ANA scripts were succeeded by Aramaic. Secondly the consonant shift l to ll is only attested in bilingual Greek-Nabataean inscriptions from the Hauran starting to appear only after the 1st century AD.

In multiple and much older Hismaic prayers (Negev to Dedan) god is addressed as 'h lhm' translated as 'O lh'. In Dadanitic script lhm is used as name, for instance in JSLih 114 'Lhm/Lḫm' and theophoric element in compound names such as 'ṭlḫm'. When the ẓll-ceremony, a central concept in Dadanitic religion is performed an alif is added to the name and theophoric suffix w making verb 'ẓllw
meaning something like 'removing sin through circulation'.

Quranic ms'lmh: Divinely inspired Moses
So let's hypothize that name Lḫm means Elohim and that when we transform LHM into verb 'Lḫm it indicates "to be divinely inspired" or "to be inspired by Elohim". So where can we find verb 'lhm? For instance in multiple Quranic verses that stress that Moses is divinely inspired: ms'lmh. It's essential to understand why the Quran uses this verb - in Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabataean 'lmh is used as a preposition such as 'to them' or 'with them' - which only could have been borrowed from Hismaic or Dadanitic script - preciously what the epigraphical record predicts. And finally, Dadanitic inscription JSLih 300 : ms¹lmh.

So it seems that Arthur Jeffery was right. Allāh derives from Elohim, which was probably the prime deity of most Hismaic tribes and Dedan.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Hismaic: Elohim or Allahumma?
Jacobson D.3.A.7 b h lhm l-‐ bn ʿry bn ʿklm bʾs¹ O Lh
Official theory: In some Hismaic texts an -m is suffixed to the divine names Lh (Allāh) and Lt (Allāt) in invocations, thus h lh-m, h lt-m (King 1990:80). This is probably an assertive particle which may be compared with the -mma in Arabic allahumma, a vocative form of Allah, the Islamic and Arabic term for one God.

New approach: Now why would the suffix -m be added to Lt (Allāt/Ilat/Eilat meaning goddess) – to express the oneness of the 'goddess'? If so we should be capable to assert a vocative form of Allāt something like `Illātumma` in Hismaic or North Arabian scripts but there are none. As one swallow doesn't make a summer a single inscription doesn't hook up with a Quranic tradition appearing almost a millennium later.

So how can LTM be explained? Alāt/Ilat* is identical to Isthar, venerated since 4000 BC and described in Central Semitic as 'lit il ga-4e-er-tum - the strong, powerful among the gods' or even as 'ga-as-ra-at el kala ilātim gima – (she/Ishtar is stronger than all the goddesses) expressing the one true goddess.
LTM is borrowed from Central Semitic as Ilātim (goddesses).

Elohim and Ilātim
L - El – Il : the strong one
LH: Ilah/Eloah: the strong god
LT –Ilat/Eilat/Allat: the strong goddess
LHM: Elohim: the infinite, all-powerful God
LTM: Ilātim: the infinite, all-powerful Goddess

Translated to Hismaic: prayers start with h LHM – O Ilohim* or h LTM – O Ilātim*

* Precise pronunciation unknown.
Last edited by Takeiteasynow on Wed Sep 02, 2020 7:07 pm, edited 1 time in total.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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... oops duplicate, can be removed
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Takeiteasynow
Interesting take. However in Hebrew the letters "him" or "im" placed at the end of a word is equivalent to the letter "s" (plural) in English.
Yeled (boy) & Yeladim (boys). or Elowah (God) - seldom pronounced & Elohim (also God) with reverence & respect (much like Tu vs. Usted in Spanish.

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Elohim was discussed in the context of the Hebrew Bible and Hismaic. It is used over 2500 times to identify angels, messengers, foreign gods and most often, in its singular masculine form, as god. So I am not sure what you're referring to - Hismaic LHM appears in 1st century AD, long after the first Qumran scrolls were produced - so I asked fellow researcher Mr. B for a response.
Hebrew LHM (Elohim) is missing in proto- and paleo-Hebrew and late Hebrew, together with almost any theophoric (Biblical) name from the Pentateuch until 200 BC or so. LHM was injected when Thamudic Yahiwsm (Schechem) merged with Midian Eloa-ism between 280 and 240 BC, both Israelite nominations yet in different stages of theological development. That's how Yahweh became the personal name of Elohim.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Himyarite Religion: Bridging the Israelites of Qumran, Palmyra and Himyar

Part I

Introduction
Until now the precise nature of the Himyarite tradition is heavily debated. It is assumed that this monotheistic was influenced by Judaism however it never addresses or quotes the Mishnah orTalmud directly as the Himyarite epigraphical record does not seem to cite any Jewish scriptures. It's nature appears to be hybrid as the Lord of the Jews in mentioned in the context of deity Raḥmān and MHMD – either Muhammad or 'The Praised One'. It gets even more confusing as Raḥmān(ān) is mentioned as the father of Jesus, identified as Allāh and as the father of Yisrāʾīl.

As Raḥmān(ān) or ar-Raḥmānm, meaning 'The (most) Merciful One' seems to be the most invoked deity it's crucial to understand why his invocations ended with Hebrew words like shalom and amen. To explain this we have to trace the concept of mercifulness.

Palmyra
According to the Arabic tradition the princes of Himyar were refugees from Palmyra. In 272 the Romans destroyed the Palmyrene Empire and in 273 the city itself. Decades later the Himyarite religion started to change until after 380 all ancient deities and were replaced by a monotheistic one.
It is at Palmyra where the idea of an all powerful Merciful God was well established as the title rhmn or 'the merciful one' was used for Baal Shamin, 'The Lord of Heavens' and an anonymous god called 'Blessed be his name forever' and often rhmn, tb', hm' and skr' translated as the merciful, good, compassionate and rewarding one.

The religion of the anonymous god became very popular at the end of the first century AD and spread all over historical Syria. As we know the cult of the Merciful One became a prominent feature of the latest phase of South Arabian religion, marking the rise of monotheism in the region and is usually accounted as a sign of Judaeo-Christian influence. So could the anonymous god of Palmyra have Judaeo-Christian roots?

Qumran
Best known for its Dead Sea Scrolls this place was the home of Jewish or Israelite sects until the Romans destroyed their settlements around 68 AD. Among the Dead Sea Scrolls are not only full or partial manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible but many other texts represent what has come to be called “sectarian literature.” In this literature the concept of mercifulness is very important: a believer can only be saved through atonement and God’s merciful forgiveness.

The text of sectarian origin can not be assumed to represent generally-accepted Jewish views from the second-Temple period and are mostly viewed to be unique to the Essene movement. One can not even assume that there is ideologically consistency among Qumran sectarian texts with the exception for a tension between God as a righteous judge and as merciful. God as merciful makes obedience possible for the members of the Qumran Community in apparent denial of human freedom and therefore moral responsibility creating an uneasy compromise of God as a righteous judge and a merciful one in the Qumran sectarian literature.


Abrahamic context of Mercifulness
This tension was among the sons of Zadok, who are the priests 'who keep the covenant', regulated by the so called Community Rule. The term “Zadok” first appears in the texts of Hammurabi meaning just. And a few decades after Hammurabi's reign the name Ibrahim appears, a Semitic Akkadian name that, according to some scholars, was a combination of two Akkadian words: 'Ibri' (friend) and 'rahum' = like - Arabic rahim- meaning 'God the Merciful'. Biblical scribes named him Abram (friend) after his covenant with God, Abraham, the friend of god receiving his mercy.

Examples of God being addressed as merciful in Qumran sectarian literature
“Blessed be you, merciful God”, and blessed be your holy and glorious name (forever) and may all your works bless you forever” (Compare with Palmyrene invocation 'Blessed be his name forever')
“The priests shall recite the just deeds of God in his mighty works and they shall proclaim all his merciful favors towards Israel. And the Levites shall recite the sins of the ons of Israel, all their blameworthy transgressions...”
“... but he as showered on us his merciful favor for ever and ever”
Rabbinic Literature
There is a large body of haggada in early rabbinic literature in which God in which is depicted as merciful. In fact God's attribute of mercy is said to be dominant over his attribute of judgment. God is often depicted as mercifully aiding those who turn to him for help to remain obedient, as if human beings were not free. This seems to match the theological developments in the sectarian Qumran scrolls and those in Syria (to a certain extent).

Connecting the dots
At first glance there seems to be strong theological relations between Qumran, Palmyra and Himyar and it would provide a perfect timeline: after the destruction of the Qumran communities in 68 AD the sectarian tribes migrate to Palmyra and after 272 AD to Himyar. To prove this we need a building or foundation block.

The Hebrew bible uses the word Yahad to describe 'being together' and in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls this word appears as a designation of the Qumran Community. This community had a 'Community Rule', the 'Rule of the Yahad', which members were called 'men of the yahad' ( see Qumran scrolls iqs 6:21, cd 20:32).

In the context of Qumran sectarian literature "Israel" means not the generality of Jews, but only those who accept the teachings of the group which was described in a new covenant variously named the Covenant of Mercy, the Covenant of the Eternal Yahad or the he Eternal Covenant.

Conclusion
The phrase YHD, appearing in Safaitic, Palmya and Himyar, should not be translated as Yahud (Jewish) but as Yahad(i), mening community, referencing the people of Yisrāʾīl at Qumran.

In the Himyarite context Allāh, who is Raḥmān(ān)*, is the Lord of the Yahad, the Merciful one and keeper of the eternal covenant. YHD refers to the community of Qumran whose members migrated to Palmyra after 68 AD and after the destruction of of the Palmyrene Empire to Himyar.

As the concept of mercifulness is central to the Quran we should find striking similarities between the Quran, Islamic dogma and the sectarian Qumran scrolls.

* Quran 17:110: "Say, "Call upon Allāh or call upon Al-Rahman. By whatever name you call (is well)
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Correction
Hebrew LHM (Elohim) is not missing in proto- or paleo-Hebrew, as it is mentioned in the 'Leviticus Qumran scroll', entirely written in Paleo-Hebrew.

Extension YHD timeline
68 AD: After destruction of Qumran communities sectarian tribes migrate to Palmyra
272 AD: Romans destroy Palmyrene Empire
275 AD: Romans destrioy Palmyra
280-300 AD Yahad communities migrate to Himyar. (Yemen). Why?*
384 AD: Yahad community takes control of Himyar
523 AD: Ethiopian invasion of Yemen/Himyar
525-575 AD: Banu Himyar migrate to Petra, Kerak and Madaba.

* The Yahadi declined slavery, the foundation of the Roman and Persian empires.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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The Dadanitic RELIGION PART IV : A Common Invocation
Translating a common Dedanitic invocation
(AH 084 )
zkyh/s¹lḥ/ḏġbt
ʾẓll h- ẓll/l ḏġbt
bʿd ṯbrt -h
frḍ -h wṯb -h

Translation
Zkyh {priest of} Ḏġbt
performed the ẓll-ceremony for Ḏġbt
for the sake of his grain
and so favor him and reward him
Oxford's Online Corpus of the Inscriptions of Ancient North Arabia follows Farès-Drappeau (2005: 206, siglum D 121) in taking ṯbrt as possibly cognate with Hebrew šeber "grain". Though this is by no means certain, it fits the context well. See also the discussion in Sima 1999: 45– 46.

At first glance this may seem a cognate that fits the context. Grain, oil and vines were the most traded agricultural products in the Near East. Nevertheless the link with Hebrew šeber is weak and there are few examples of Hebrew influence on Dedanitic religious life. Assuming that ḎQBT means 'The One (He) from the Watchtower' phrase ṯbrt probably has more significance.

Tracing Semitic root tbrt doesn't provide much clues and relates only to Punic and Ugurutic tbrt meaning 'fat' or 'fat sacrefice'. Knowing that Dedanitic script preserves forms of old Semitic the proto-Semitic d/t stem may offer more results – so let's change tbrt into dbrt and trace this root.

To go, depart
Root dbr is used in Uguritic as verb meaning to go or to depart – he goes or departs as 'dabarat'. In the Peshita, Syriac verb dbr/t/ is used to express to be led or guided by God in 'wʾnʾ dbrt lʾprym' meaning 'I led Ephraim'. Aramaic root dbr essentry expresses departing or heading towards an objective. Semitic basic lexicon and underlies the Akkadian dap/baru “to go to”, Uguritic dbr to “depart” or classic Ethiopic dabra meaning 'mountain' mucg as Geéz calls a cloister dabr because holy sites can usually found on hills.

Aramaic dabra, which appears as dabru in the Babylonian lexical list is a distant location like the Babylonian Aramaic d'bir where it is used to indicate the remote backroom of the temple and originally a holy mountain.

To lead, to guide, leader
Dbr with the meaning to lead occurs both in the G- and D-stem occurs both in the G- and D-stem in Judean and Babylonian Jewish, Aramaic and Syriac. In Mandaic it is used with the specific meaning “to lead something out” and in Syriac as “leading the water into the wadi”. In Biblical Hebrew form dbrt with a final -t is used to express 'to direct' as in Job 5:8 (dibrati) or as noun dibr(at) meaning 'Leader'.

Conclusion
Deducing Dadanitic phrase ṯbrt to dbr(t) through the proto-Semitic d/t stem in the sense of to lead towards an objective fits the context as 'The One of the Watchtower/fortress' leads with his Covenant.

Using the previous analysis of Dgbt and zll-ceremony:
(AH 084 )
zkyh/s¹lḥ/ḏġbt
ʾẓll h- ẓll/l DQBT
bʿd dbrt -h
frḍ -h wṯb -h

Translation
Zkyh {priest of} 'He of the Watchtower'
performed the 'Blessing Ceremony' for 'He of the Watchtower
for the sake of his Lead
and so favour him and reward him
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Monotheistic Arabic-script inscription from the northern Ḥigāz
Circa 550 AD

An interesting new discovery showing monotheism in the northern Ḥigāz as this inscription uses the formula
la-ʾūṣi-kum billāh
'I urge you to god'
Image
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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